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International Dental & Medical Journal of Advanced Research (2018), Vol 4
1.ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Prevalence of symptoms of depression among the dental undergraduates, Karachi, Pakistan
Kashif Ikram, Mohammad Ali Leghari, Saniha Khalil, Rida Kainat
[Year:2018] [Month:January-December] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:175–178] [No. of Hits: 1576]
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  • DOI : 10.15713/ins.idmjar.89

ABSTRACT

Aim: The purpose of this research is to measure the prevalence of the symptoms of depression in undergraduate dental students.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in September and October 2017 among the dental graduates. A total of 154 students participated in the research. The participants were surveyed through a self-administered questionnaire that included the validated center for epidemiological studies-depression scale as the assessment tool and questions about demographic characteristics.

Results: The prevalence of depression was 60.4% in dental graduates. The prevalence of depression was higher in female (62.4%) dental undergraduates than males (57.4%). Overall, First-year students had a higher prevalence of depression than other class years.

Conclusion: The high prevalence of depression among dental students highlights the significance of providing support and assistance programs along with the implementation of preventive measures. These measures will help particularly those who have a higher degree of susceptible elevated levels of these psychological conditions.

Clinical Significance: The prevalence of depression was higher in dental students with higher prevalence in female particularly the first-year students. Year of study and gender were the risk factors for depression in students. Counseling sessions of depression for susceptible students should conduct yearly basis to manage the symptoms promptly.

Keywords: Center for epidemiological studies-depression scale, dental students, gender, symptoms of depression

How to cite this article: Ikram K, Leghari MA, Khalil S, Kainat R. Prevalence of symptoms of depression among the dental undergraduates, Karachi, Pakistan. Int Dent Med J Adv Res 2018;4:175-178.

Received: 09 May 2018;

Accepted: 30 June 2018

2.ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Esthetic evaluation of maxillary anterior single-tooth implant by dental specialists and non-dental personnel
Sneha Dani, Ashwin Prabhu, K. Vipin Jain, Sachin Dugad, J. Raghunand Sindhe, Sudhir R. Patil
[Year:2018] [Month:January-December] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:1–6] [No. of Hits: 1812]
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  • DOI : 10.15713/ins.idmjar.83

ABSTRACT

Background: Implant therapy in partially edentulous patients has become a well-established treatment modality, in general, and anterior single-tooth replacement has become a highly predictable solution. However, the current literature is scarce when it comes to objective outcome evaluation from an esthetic point of view.

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between non-dental personnel’s perception of single-tooth implant restoration (STIR) with pink esthetic score (PES)/white esthetic score (WES) grading given by different dental specialists.

Materials and Methods: A total of 20 photographs with one implant restoration in the esthetic zone (maxillary canine to canine) surrounded by virgin teeth were included in the study. A total of 20 specialists (4 periodontists; 4 prosthodontists; 4 oral surgeons; 4 endodontists; and 4 senior general dental practitioners) evaluated the photographs for PES and WES scores. Same photographs were presented to 25 laypeople. They were instructed to identify which tooth was STIR and also record what factor influenced their decision for selecting STIR (surrounding peri-implant soft tissue or implant restoration).

Results: Among the dental specialists, oral surgeons were very generous in PES/WES scores followed by endodontists, periodontists, general practitioners, and least scores were assigned by prosthodontists. The difference between all five groups was statistically significant. Furthermore, a negative correlation was observed between mean PES/WES scores assigned by specialists with positive identification of STIR by laypeople.

Conclusion: Achieving good consistent anterior esthetics is a challenge. The hard and soft tissues, as well as the crown portion, have to be in harmony for acceptable results. In this study, highest score was given by oral surgeons and prosthodontists were very critical. Furthermore, it was observed that laypeople identified white esthetic deficiencies more frequently than pink esthetic deficiencies.

Clinical Significance: Anterior maxillary single-tooth implant replacement is a successful and predictable treatment modality. PES/WES index are valuable objective assessment tools for evaluating anterior esthetics. However, the dentist’s assessment may be different from that of the patient, because the latter is more subjective. Thus, a combination of subjective and objective assessment tools is essential while evaluating anterior esthetics.

Keywords: Dental implants, dental specialists, pink esthetic score, single-tooth implant restoration, white esthetic score

How to cite this article: Dani S, Prabhu A, Jain KV, Dugad S, Sindhe JR, Patil SR. Esthetic evaluation of maxillary anterior single-tooth implant by dental specialists and non-dental personnel. Int Dent Med J Adv Res 2018;4:1-6.

Received: 05.01.2018;

Accepted: 19.01.2018

3.REVIEW ARTICLE
Future prospects in endodontic regeneration - A review article
Hussain Mookhtiar, Vivek Hegde, Srilatha Shanmugsundaram
[Year:2018] [Month:January-December] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:1–5] [No. of Hits: 1866]
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  • DOI : 10.15713/ins.idmjar.84

ABSTRACT

Regenerative medicine, aims to restore or establish the normal function of lost, diseased, damaged or aging cells, tissues and organs using a range of approaches; including cell-based and gene-based therapies, tissue engineering, and biomedical engineering. The future scope of regenerative endodontics may be increased to include the replacement of periapical tissues, periodontal ligaments, gingiva, and even tooth in-toto. The aim of this article is to review the prospects of endodontic regeneration.Future clinical research would likely focus on translating basic research findings into improved regenerative procedures, such as formation of cementum-like material on the dentinal walls that might lead to studies evaluating benefits of revascularization procedures for overall tooth resistance to fracture. Controlled differentiation into odontoblasts is an important area of research and amenable to tissue engineering concepts. The development of the delivery systems might permit structural reinforcement of the cervical area that might provide clinical opportunities to regenerate lost tooth structure, thereby permitting natural teeth to be retained. Clinical significance: Expanding the scope of regenerative medicine, researchers have also developed and applied regenerative procedures in oral soft and hard tissues.

Keywords: Endodontic regeneration, scaffolds, stem cells

How to cite this article: Mookhtiar H, Hegde V, Shanmugsundaram S. Future prospects in endodontic regeneration - A review article. Int Dent Med J Adv Res 2018;4:1-5.

Received: 08 January 2018;

Accepted: 12 February 2018

4.ORIGINAL ARTICLE
The Efficacy of Aloe vera Gel in Treatment of Oral Lichen Planus
Sofia Sid Ahmed, Laila M. Gadalla, Samah H. Elmeadawy, Farid Badria
[Year:2018] [Month:January-December] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:1–6] [No. of Hits: 1820]
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  • DOI : 10.15713/ins.idmjar.85

ABSTRACT

Background: Aloe vera (AV) gels with different concentrations are available in the market. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of AV gel with two different concentrations in the treatment of oral lichen planus (OLP) compared with placebo.

Materials and Methods: A total of 21 females suffering from the clinical signs and symptoms of OLP were grouped into Group (I) patients receiving AV gel divided into two subgroups, subgroup (A) received AV 70% concentration (7 patients) and subgroup)B) received AV 90% concentration (7 patients) and Group (II) control group received placebo (7 patients).

Results: There was no statistically significant difference between ulcer sizes at all points of follow-up in Egyptian and Australian AV compared to placebo. The degree of change was higher in Egyptian than Australian AV regarding size, erythema, reticulation, and total area of lesion. However, there was no statistically significant difference between two types of treatment as regards all measured parameters (P > 0.05).

Conclusions: AV gel whether Egyptian or Australian is statistically significantly more effective than placebo in inducing marked improvement clinically of OLP. Therefore, AV gel can be considered a safe alternative treatment for patients with OLP.

Clinical Significance: AV gel can be considered a safe alternative treatment for patients with OLP.

Keywords: Aloe vera, erythema, oral lichen planus, placebo

How to cite this article: Ahmed SS, Gadalla LM, Elmeadawy SH, Badria F. The efficacy of Aloe vera gel in treatment of oral lichen planus. Int Dent Med J Adv Res 2018;4:1-6.

Received: November 16, 2017;

Accepted: March 08, 2018

5.REVIEW ARTICLE
Biomarker Detection of Neurological Disorders through Spectroscopy Analysis
Rabia Sannam Khan, Muhammad Rashid Ahmed, Basil Khalid, Anum Mahmood, Rashid Hassan
[Year:2018] [Month:January-December] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:1–9] [No. of Hits: 1981]
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  • DOI : 10.15713/ins.idmjar.86

ABSTRACT

Background: The accurate and efficient diagnosis at the early stages of neurological disorders is the key feature for effective treatment and productive research for finding out new ways to combat diseases. It is essentially true for neurological disorders where there is no effective cure, but only treatments are available for slowing down the procedure. Neurological disorders reveal only non-specific clinical symptoms of mental changes/decline starting from a few days to decades after initiation which goes very challenging to differentiate even at later stages when the disorder becomes way aggressive. Despite the fact of having great need, the current availability of diagnostic tests is unable to diagnose different forms of neurological disorders.

Aim: The aim of this review is to explore the application of Raman spectroscopy (RS) and mass spectrometry (MS) for the detection of changes in the biochemical composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood serum, urine, and saliva. The approach will be based on probing biochemical composition of a biofluid totally using the spectroscopy analysis with advanced statistics. The power of high differentiation method will promote the translation of RS from mere a laboratory technique to clinically useful tool. Demonstration of biochemical information derived from RS from CSF, blood, saliva, and urine that will yield accurate and selective detection of neurological disorders. It will also provide diagnostic and prognostic indicators and will also play a significant role in the development of personalized medicine.

Conclusion: Combination of RS and other techniques such as MS and advanced molecular techniques will allow differentiating CSF, blood serum, saliva, and urine samples of common neurological disorders from normal control patients with sensitivity and specificity close to 95%.

Clinical Significance: The outcome of the research methods explained will demonstrate an accurate discriminative method which will be based on RS for the detection of neurological disorders. The findings of research in the review will furthermore confirm that if the biomedical application of the methods will either allow to distinguish and detect biomarkers of neurological disorders from biofluids and is it a viable clinical tool that can be used for an accurate diagnosis through a simple test.

Keywords: Biological fluids, biomarkers, diagnosis, neurological disorders, spectroscopy analysis

How to cite this article: Khan RS, Ahmed MR, Khalid B, Mahmood A, Hassan R. Biomarker Detection of Neurological Disorders through Spectroscopy Analysis. Int Dent Med J Adv Res 2018;4:1-9.

Received: 09 February 2018;

Accepted: 18 March 2018

6.ORIGINAL ARTICLE
The level of education and oral health attitudes of the dental students in a governmental university - A cross-sectional study
Eyman Noman Abu Alregal, Fatma Abdelgawad, Hisako Sasahara, Kamal El Motayam
[Year:2018] [Month:January-December] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:1–7] [No. of Hits: 1600]
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  • DOI : 10.15713/ins.idmjar.90

ABSTRACT

Background: Dental student educational knowledge has an important role in the oral health education of their patients, families, and friends as well as their community by transmitting the correct oral habits and raising the awareness on how to prevent oral diseases.

Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and behavior toward the oral health of students studying dentistry in Cairo University, Egypt, using Hiroshima University - Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) questionnaire.

Methodology: The HU-DBI questionnaire was developed by Kawamura to evaluate oral health attitude, behavior, and self-reported knowledge. This questionnaire involves 20 items in a dichotomous response format (agree/disagree). As the English version of the questionnaire was used, and an Arabic version was adopted (mother tongue of the participants). It was distributed among 896 undergraduate students at the beginning or end of the practical section and was given a full explanation of the study. Each participant allowed 7-15 min to fill the questionnaire. The score of each item was analyzed and then a mean score was calculated.

Results: There was a statistically significant difference in attitude and knowledge, while there was no statistically significant difference in behavior among dental student. The attitude and knowledge of clinical students are higher than that of preclinical, while behavior showed no statistically significant difference. Furthermore, oral health attitude of males was better than females, while oral health behavior of female dental students was better than males, as well as there was no statistically significant difference in knowledge between males and females in all levels.

Conclusion: The oral health attitude and knowledge of clinical dental students are higher than that of preclinical students; however, oral health behavior was the same for all levels.

Clinical Significant: The improvement of the dental student behavior and knowledge has a direct effect on the oral health of their patients, families, and their community that will lead to improvement of the general health.

Keywords: Behavior, dental students, educational level, knowledge, oral health attitude

How to cite this article: Alregal EN, Abdelgawad F, Sasahara H, El Motayam K. The level of education and oral health attitudes of the dental students in a governmental university - A crosssectional study. Int Dent Med J Adv Res 2018;4:1-7.

Received: 14 March 2018;

Accepted: 04 July 2018

7.META - ANALYSIS
Usefulness of salivary biomarkers in oral precancer and cancer
Alberto Rodriguez-Archilla, M. Beatriz Carrion-Ruiz
[Year:2018] [Month:January-December] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:1–6] [No. of Hits: 1485]
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  • DOI : 10.15713/ins.idmjar.91

ABSTRACT

Background: Oral and pharyngeal cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world. Tumoral biomarkers are important for the early diagnosis of oral cancer and to establish prognostic criteria for these lesions.

Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the possible influence of salivary biomarkers on potentially malignant and malignant oral lesions.

Methodology: A PubMed search through April 2018, using the following Medical Subjects Headings terms, was performed: “Mouth neoplasms,” “biomarkers,” and “saliva.” Studies with findings on several salivary biomarkers on potentially malignant and malignant oral lesions were comprised. A total of 180 articles (156 of them full-text articles) were found. 142 articles were excluded for several reasons: Different measurement units/detection methods (95), studies with no usable data (34), studies with no oral cancer patients group (7), and studies about malignant salivary gland tumors (6). For continuous outcomes, the estimates of effects of an intervention were expressed as mean differences (MD) using the inverse variance method together with 95% confidence intervals.

Results: Fourteen studies on salivary biomarkers on potentially malignant and malignant oral lesions were included in this meta-analysis. Biomarkers with significant diagnostic and prognostic relevance in oral cancer were as follows: Interleukin 8 (IL-8) (P < 0.001), endothelin 1 (P < 0.001), IL-6 (P < 0.001), cytokeratin fraction 21-1 (P < 0.001), and carcinoembryonic antigen (P = 0.01).

Conclusion: Salivary biomarkers have a important relevance in oral cancer. In the case of potentially malignant oral disorders, their relevance seems less evident.

Clinical Significance: Saliva is an useful fluid to identify possible diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in oral cancer.

Keywords: Biomarkers, early diagnosis, mouth neoplasms, prognosis, saliva

How to cite this article: Rodriguez-Archilla A, Carrion-Ruiz MB. Usefulness of salivary biomarkers in oral precancer and cancer. Int Dent Med J Adv Res 2018;4: 1-6.

Received: 09 July 18;

Accepted: 20 August 18

8.ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Comparison Between Patient Satisfaction And Biting Force In A Single Implant Overdenture And Two-Implants Overdenture: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Adnan Al-Fahd, Nadia Abbas, Mohamed Farouk
[Year:2018] [Month:January-December] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:1–7] [No. of Hits: 1841]
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  • DOI : 10.15713/ins.idmjar.81

ABSTRACT

Background: Mandibular implant overdenture retained by two implants was considered the minimum requirement for treatment of mandibular edentulous jaw. However, the financial cost of this treatment is relatively high that could not offered by many patients, especially in developing countries.

Aim: This study was made to ascertain if the mandibular overdenture retained by one implant at satisfaction and biting force parameters.

Methodology: A total of 56 edentulous patients have met the selection criteria. After randomized sampling system, one or two implants were inserted in the mandible following delayed surgical protocol, and locator attachments were screwed to implants at the second stage of surgery. The patient’s satisfaction was rated and the biting force was measured at baseline (before implant) and at 3, 6, and 12 months after implant loading. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using 100 mm visual analog scale, whereas the biting force was measured by load star sensor device.

Results: The study sample comprised of 56 patients (32 male AND 24 female), with a mean age of 58.2 years. All patients attended the 12-month follow-up without dropout. The two-implant group present a significant improvement in both patient satisfaction and biting force throughout the follow-up period in comparison with single implant group.

Conclusion: The two implants mandibular overdenture still the minimum standard treatment modality for completely edentulous cases rather than single implants mandibular overdenture..

Clinical Significance: The mandibular overdenture retained by single implant at the midline can provide a beneficial treatment outcome over 1 year observation period, especially for low-income patients.

Keywords: Biting force, dental implants, locator attachment, patient satisfaction, single implant overdenture

How to cite this article: Al-Fahd A, Abbas N, Farouk M. Comparison between Patient Satisfaction and Biting Force in a Single Implant Overdenture and Two-implants Overdenture: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Int Dent Med J Adv Res 2018;4:1- 7.

Received: 01 December 2017;
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Accepted: 08 December 2017

9.CORRESPONDENCE
ILL effects of Conventional band and loop space maintainers: Time to revolutionise
H. Sharath Chandra, S. H. Krishnamoorthy, Jency Samuel Johnson, Shashikala Prabhu
[Year:2018] [Month:January-December] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:1–3] [No. of Hits: 4981]
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  • DOI : 10.15713/ins.idmjar.82

ABSTRACT

Background: Premature loss of primary teeth due to caries, trauma, or any other cause ultimately leads to undesirable movement of primary and/or permanent teeth resulting in arch length deficiency. Such a loss can produce or increase the severity of malocclusions with rotations, ectopic eruption, crowding, excessive overjet and overbite, unfavorable molar relationships, and crossbite. Pediatric dentist as a part of managing developing occlusion prefers the use of space maintainers to eliminate or decrease the severity of such malocclusions. Fixed space maintainers are usually indicated to maintain space created by unilateral/bilateral premature loss of primary teeth in either of the arches. Of the various fixed space maintainers, band and loop type is most frequently used. Even though it has high success rate and good patient compliance, there are disadvantages in its construction and longevity.

Aim: In the present case series, we highlight ill effects of conventional band and loop space maintainers with appliance acting as plaque retentive causing gingival enlargement, mucosal overgrowth on the loop, band displacement causing blanching of gingiva, loop impingement on the mucosa causing ulceration, pain, and cement disintegration around the band.

Conclusion: In the era of bondontics and with the advent of newer materials such as fiber-reinforced composite resin system (FRCR), now, it is the time to revolutionize the conventional band and loop space maintainers to overcome the disadvantages.

Clinical Significance: FRCR as space maintainers are esthetic which is need of the hour in the present century, easy to clean, does not impinge on the soft tissue and with no laboratory procedure involved.

Keywords: Conventional band and loop space maintainer, Fiber-reinforced composite resin system, Fixed space maintainer, Malocclusion, Space maintenance

How to cite this article: Chandra SH, Krishnamoorthy SH, Johnson JS, Prabhu S. ILL effects of Conventional band and loop space maintainers ##time to revolutionise. Int Dent Med J Adv Res 2018;4:1-4.

Received: 03-01-2018;

Accepted: 08-02-2018

10.CORRESPONDENCE
Pyogenic granuloma of oral cavity: Case series and clinicopathologic correlation
Anushri Ranjan, Ravi Sharma, Manika Arora, Naiem Ahmed, Debopriya Banerjee, Harshita Sharma
[Year:2018] [Month:January-December] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:1–4] [No. of Hits: 2289]
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  • DOI : 10.15713/ins.idmjar.87

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Background: Pyogenic granuloma is an inflammatory hyperplasia occasionally observed in the oral cavity. The term pyogenic granuloma is a misnomer because it neither contains pus nor it is a granuloma histologically. Most commonly occurs in the second decade of life and females are more commonly affected. Trauma, calculus, pregnancy, hormonal factors are the common etiological factors associated. It appears as smooth or lobulated exophytic lesion, mostly pedunculated and bleeds on slight probing. The diagnosis of pyogenic granuloma should be confirmed by histopathology and treatment of choice is surgical excision. Recurrence is not uncommon and mainly occurs due to incomplete excision and persisting etiology.

Aim: This article presents four cases of oral pyogenic granuloma with literature review summarizing the existing knowledge of etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and management of this non neoplastic lesion.

Conclusion: Pyogenic granuloma occurs as mostly painless benign growth but causes great discomfort and fear of malignancy to the patient. Surgical excision and removal of etiological factors are the mainstay treatment.

Clinical Significance: This article reiterates importance of correct diagnosis and treatment planning in common oral lesions such as pyogenic granuloma. Histopathological examination of the excised lesion can help in definitive diagnosis. Pyogenic granuloma bleeds profusely and hence adequate hemostatic measures should be employed during and after the surgery.

Keywords: Capillary hemangioma, gingival enlargement, inflammatory hyperplasia, pyogenic granuloma

How to cite this article: Ranjan A, Sharma R, Arora M, Ahmed N, Banerjee D, Sharma H. Pyogenic granuloma of oral cavity: Case series and clinicopathologic correlation. Int Dent Med J Adv Res 2018;4:1-4.

Received: 12 April 2018;

Accepted: 16 May 2018

11.ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Comparative Evaluation of Antimicrobial Properties of Pomegranate Peel Extract Against Streptococcus Mutans And Lactobacillus - An In Vitro Study
Sanket Kunte, Nikita Kadam, Alok Patel, Preetam Shah, Rahul Lodaya, Laxmi Lakde
[Year:2018] [Month:January-December] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:1–6] [No. of Hits: 1848]
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  • DOI : 10.15713/ins.idmjar.88

ABSTRACT

Background: Dental caries is an infectious disease influenced by cariogenic microorganisms. Streptococcus mutans is associated with the initiation of caries, while lactobacilli with disease progression. Chlorhexidine is used as a gold standard mouthwash but with some side effects such as staining on long-term use. Nature itself is the best physician; it helps in treating oral health. Medicinal plants such as neem, tulsi, clove oil, triphala, and many more have been used in dentistry since ages to treat oral health problems such as bleeding gums, halitosis, and caries. One of them is pomegranate. It is the oldest edible fruit and considered as “a pharmacy unto itself.“ Pomegranate has phenolic acids, flavonoids, and tannins in its different parts. Hydrolysable tannins called punicalagins which have free scavenging properties are the most abundant polyphenols found in pomegranate containing mouthwash. It has anticariogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties.

Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of pomegranate peel extract, Hiora, and chlorhexidine.

Materials and Methods: In this study, three different mouthwashes were used and divided into four groups as follows: Group A as chlorhexidine mouthwash (Hexidine), Group B as herbal mouthwash (Hiora), Group C as pomegranate peel extract 100% concentrated, and Group D as pomegranate peel extract 75% concentrated. Reference strains of S. mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus were selected as it plays an important role in caries initiation and progression. S. mutans and Lactobacillus were grown in blood agar plates. For agar well diffusion method, wells of approximately 6-mm diameter and 4 mm in depth were made using a cork. In those wells, mouthwashes were added. Plates were incubated for 48 h at 37°C. The zone of inhibition was measured with the help of Vernier caliper.

Results: The zone of inhibition of the solutions against S. Mutans and Lactobacillus shows a statistically significant P < 0.001** with f value of 1419.377 and 164.916, respectively.

Conclusion: The pomegranate peel extract and Hiora show antimicrobial activities, and hence, they can be replaced for the long-term use to avoid the side effects of chlorhexidine mouthwash.

Clinical significance: The pomegranate peel extract is a natural product with the antibacterial property; hence, it can be easily incorporated into oral hygiene measures such as mouthwashes or toothpastes.

Keywords: Chlorhexidine, Hiora, Lactobacillus acidophilus, pomegranate peel extract, Streptococcus mutans, zone of inhibition

How to cite this article: Kunte S, Kadam N, Patel A, Shah P, Lodaya R, Lakde L. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial properties of pomegranate peel extract against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus - An in vitro study. Int Dent Med J Adv Res 2018;4:1-6

Received 31 March 2018;

Accepted 06 May 2018

12.ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficiency of marketed children’s fluoridated toothpastes at diluted concentrations against Streptococcus mutans - An in vitro study
Rahul Lodaya, Smruti Venkataraman, Laxmi Lakade, Chetan Bhat, Sanket Kunte, Shweta Jajoo
[Year:2018] [Month:January-December] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:1–5] [No. of Hits: 1599]
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  • DOI : 10.15713/ins.idmjar.92

ABSTRACT

Background: Dentifrices containing fluoride are known to possess anticarious benefits and are also used for enamel remineralization. A dentifrice is the best source of fluoride for children. However, there seems to be a risk of dental fluorosis as children tend to consume passable amount of fluoride from toothpastes itself. Due to the deliberate swallowing of toothpaste and the menace of fluorosis, dentifrices with lower fluoride concentrations for young children are developed and marketed.

Aim: The objective of the study is to determine and equate the efficiency of fluoridated toothpastes of children at altered or diluted levels against Streptococcus mutans.

Methodology: The preparation of the slurry was done by diluting the measured amount of toothpastes (20 g) in calculated 20 mL of sterile distilled water that gives a 1:1 (toothpaste:distilled water) concentration. Blood agar plates were made, and after solidification of culture medium, wells were made in each agar plate and all the concentrations of the two test materials, i.e., 1:1, 1:4, and 1:8 of 20 μL each were added to respective wells and were incubated at 37°C for 48 h and under strict aerobic conditions. The study was performed and repeated 10 times under sterile conditions. The zone of inhibition was measured using a digitalized Vernier caliper in millimeter.

Results: The zone of inhibition of the studied samples against the tested strain was significant at diluted levels of fluoride.

Conclusions: The fluoridated dentifrices even after having lesser fluoride concentration show antimicrobial property.

Clinical Significance: This study will help us in understanding the antimicrobial efficiency of fluoride at reduced concentrations and thereby can help curb the menace of fluorosis and nip it at the bud. By manufacturing, dentifrices contained reduced levels of fluoride.

Keywords: Antimicrobial property, dilutions, fluoride levels, Streptococcus mutans, toothpastes

How to cite this article: Lodaya R, Venkataraman S, Lakade L, Bhat C, Kunte S, Jajoo S. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficiency of marketed children’s fluoridated toothpastes at diluted concentrations against Streptococcus mutans - An in vitro study. Int Dent Med J Adv Res 2018;4:1-5

Received: 06 July 2018;

Accepted: 03 September 2018

13.ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial properties of chicory extract and chlorhexidine mouthwash against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus
Preetam Shah, Nikita Nishan, Alok Patel, Chetan Bhat, Shweta Choudhary, Rohan Shah
[Year:2018] [Month:January-December] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:1–4] [No. of Hits: 1538]
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  • DOI : 10.15713/ins.idmjar.93

ABSTRACT

Background: Dental caries is the most widespread disease affecting human race where Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus are prime microorganisms involved. Chlorhexidine is used as antiplaque agent, but it has some side effects such as unpleasant taste and staining on long-term use, leading to search of a suitable alternative. Chicory, an ayurvedic plant, has antiplaque, anti-inflammatory, and healing properties along with aromatic cooling property.

Aim: This study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of chicory extract mouthwash and chlorhexidine mouthwash (0.12%) against S. mutans and L. acidophilus.

Methods: Strains of S. mutans and Lactobacillus were grown and subjected to test solutions (chicory and chlorhexidine) and zone of inhibition measured by agar well diffusion method. Results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis.

Results: Zone of inhibition of chicory extract and chlorhexidine against S. mutans and Lactobacillus shows highly significant P < 0.001 with +value 19.982 and 21.731, respectively.

Conclusion: Chicory extract showed statistically significant inhibition against S. mutans as compared to chlorhexidine rinse mouthwash. While chlorhexidine mouthwash has shown statistically significant inhibition against S. mutans as compared to chicory extract.

Clinical Significance: Chicory has a promising antibacterial activity. Thus, it can be incorporated as one of the ingredients in mouthwash.

Keywords: Anti-inflammatory, antiplaque, chicory extract, chlorhexidine mouthwash, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus mutans

How to cite this article: Shah P, Nishan N, Patel A, Bhat C, Choudhary S, Shah R. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial properties of chicory extract and chlorhexidine mouthwash against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Int Dent Med J Adv Res 2018;4:1-4.

Received: 06 July 2018;

Accepted: 03 September 2018

14.ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Patterns and prevalence of sinonasal inverted papilloma in Port Harcourt metropolis, Nigeria: Computed tomography findings
Michael Promise Ogolodom, Okechukwu Felix Erondu, Anthony Chukwuka Ugwu, Christopher Chukwuemeka Ohagwu
[Year:2018] [Month:January-December] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:1–4] [No. of Hits: 1458]
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  • DOI : 10.15713/ins.idmjar.94

ABSTRACT

Background: Inverted papilloma is a rare and slow-growing benign epithelial neoplasm that has a high tendency of changing into malignant tumor which usually occurs in the sinonasal cavities. This pathology was first described and characterized by Ward and Ringertz, respectively. Inverted papilloma has high capability of invading nearby structures usually from the lateral wall of nasal cavity and often extends into the adjacent maxillary or ethmoidal sinuses.

Aim: This study is aimed to evaluate the patterns and prevalence of sinonasal inverted papilloma diagnosed on computed tomography (CT) in Port Harcourt, and the following specific objective was also evaluated: Age and sex distributions of the pathology.

Materials and Methods: The craniofacial CT examinations were performed using general electric machines with standard scanning protocols and parameters. A retrospective cross-sectional research design was adopted for this study, and all CT radiological reports of patients who underwent craniofacial CT scan from January 2012 to May 2017 and met the inclusion criteria were selected using data capture sheet. Approval for this study was obtained from the management of the study centers. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive statistics on SPSS version 20.

Results: Of 1572 data evaluated, 6.5% (n = 102) had sinonasal inverted papilloma. Nasal obstruction was the most common symptom, 36.91% (n = 55), and the least was frontal headache, 6.71% (n = 10). Paranasal Sinuses (PNSs) were highly affected, 44.29% (n = 62). 66.7% (n = 68) were male and 33.3% (n = 34) were female. The age group of 31–45 years was highest, 41.18% (n = 42), and 0–15 years was least, 2.94% (n = 3).

Conclusion: The prevalence of sinonasal inverted papilloma was low in this study. PNSs were highly affected than nasal cavities. Sinonasal inverted papilloma was common in males than females, and young adults were commonly affected by the pathology.

Clinical Significance: Adequate knowledge of the patterns and prevalence of sinonasal inverted papilloma diagnosed on CT in Port Harcourt would be useful information to the ear, nose, and throat surgeons in planning their functional endoscopy sinus surgery and also in managing patients who cannot afford to pay for PNS CT investigations in this locality.

Keywords: Computed tomography, inverted papilloma, sinonasal spaces

How to cite this article: Ogolodom MP, Erondu OF, Ugwu AC, Ohagwu CC., Patterns and prevalence of sinonasal inverted papilloma in Port Harcourt metropolis, Nigeria: Computed tomography findings. Int Dent Med J Adv Res 2018;4:1-4.

Received: 26 September 18;

Accepted: 28 October 18

15.ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Coronal morphometry of deciduous molars of melano-Ivorian children, West Africa
Kone Kolomdou, Bakayoko-Ly Ramata, Sonan Kakou, Savi De Tove M. Manuel, Ebrottie Ebrottie
[Year:2018] [Month:January-December] [Volume:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages No:1–6] [No. of Hits: 1481]
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  • Abstract
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  • DOI : 10.15713/ins.idmjar.95

ABSTRACT

Background: Dental identification is based on the comparison of anterior and postmortem documents, in the absence of fingerprints or other details.

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine coronal measurements of the deciduous molars of the melano-African children of Cote d’Ivoire to contribute to the establishment of dimensional indicators in deciduous teeth.

Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective survey which concerned 1411 deciduous maxillary and mandibular molars resulting from 366 casts of melano-African children of Cote d’Ivoire, aged from 2½ to 8½ years, in stable deciduous and mixed teeth. Measurements of coronal diameters at the vestibular, palatal or lingual, proximal, and occlusal surfaces in both the sexes were performed using a drypoint compass and a graduated ruler. From a statistical analysis, with Microsoft Office Excel® and Access® software, mean values and their standard deviations were calculated. A comparative analysis based on the reduced deviation test formula compared the coronal diameters of the right and left hemi-arches; and those of girls and boys, with a statistical significance test, equal to “t” >1.96 at the 0.05 threshold.

Results: These results show that there is no significant difference between the diameters on the right and left sides. The first and second maxillary deciduous molars have identical coronary diameters; however, at the mandible, the second molar has coronal diameters statistically greater than those of the first deciduous molar with a significance test >1.96. The coronal diameters of the molars are statistically identical for both the sexes at the maxilla and mandible.

Conclusion: Molars are identical to their contralateral. The mandibular molars are in ascending series. There is no sexual dimorphism. This study needs to be extended to the temporary anterior teeth in order to obtain complete morphometric data in temporary teeth in the Melano-Ivorian subject.

Clinical Significance: The practical application of European coronal measures on the deciduous molars of the melano-Ivorian subject poses enormous difficulties; linked to the non-compliance of standards during treatment. To overcome the challenges, it seems useful to make our contribution to the morphometry of the dental identification which is based on the comparison of anterior and postmortem documents, in the absence of fingerprints or other details of the molars of the melano-Ivorian children.

Keywords: African melanoderm, coronal diameter cote, D’Ivoire, deciduous molar, morphometry

How to cite this article: Kolomdou K, Ramata B, Kakou S, Manuel STM, Ebrottie E. Coronal morphometry of deciduous molars of melano-Ivorian children, West Africa. Int Dent Med J Adv Res 2018;4:1-6.

Received: 26 June 18;

Accepted: 30 October 18